Urban Wildlife
Urban Wildlife
The Government of India enacted Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972 with the objective of effectively protecting the wildlife of this country and to control poaching, smuggling and illegal trade in wildlife and its derivatives. The Act was amended in January 2003 and punishment and penalty for offences under the Act have been made more stringent. The Ministry has proposed further amendments in the law by introducing more rigid measures to strengthen the Act. The objective is to provide protection to the listed endangered flora and fauna and ecologically important protected areas.The Government of India has introduced various types of regulations and legislations in order to protect our wildlife and forests. They are listed and described briefly below:

  • The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
    The Wildlife (Protection) Act (WLPA), 1972 is an important statute that provides a powerful legal framework for:
    • Prohibition of hunting
    • Protection and management of wildlife habitats
    • Establishment of protected areas
    • Regulation and control of trade in parts and products derived from wildlife
    • Management of zoos

    The WLPA provides for several categories of Protected Areas/Reserves:
    • National Parks
    • Wildlife Sanctuaries
    • Tiger Reserves
    • Conservation Reserves
    • Community Reserves

  • The Indian Forest Act (1927) and Forest Acts of State Governments
    The main objective of the Indian Forest Act (1927) was to secure exclusive state control over forests to meet the demand for timber. Most of these untitled lands had traditionally belonged to the forest dwelling communities. The Act defined state ownership, regulated its use, and appropriated the power to substitute or extinguish customary rights. The Act facilitates three categories of forests, namely
    • Reserved forests
    • Village forests
    • Protected forests

    Reserved forests are the most protected within these categories. No rights can be acquired in reserved forests except by succession or under a grant or contract with the government. Felling trees, grazing cattle, removing forest products, quarrying, fishing, and hunting are punishable with a fine or imprisonment. Although the Indian Forest Act is a federal act, many states have enacted similar forest acts but with some modifications.
  • The Forest Conservation Act (1980)
  • The Environment (Protection) Act (1986)
  • The Biological Diversity Act (2002)
  • National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016)
  • National Forest Policy (1998)

  • Source - http://envfor.nic.in/division/wildlife (Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Govt of India)